Here is a picture of the boom operator’s panel of the KC-135 stratotanker.
- The gauges at the top indicate the position of the air refueling boom. The green arcs represent the air refueling envelope that the receiver aircraft must remain inside of. The red markings on the gauges are the limits of the air refueling envelope. If the receiver exceeds these limits and the tanker’s signal system is in NORMAL, then an automatic disconnect will occur.
- The boom signal coil voltmeter on the right of the panel shows the status of the boom nozzle signal coil when the PUSH TO TEST button is pressed. The voltmeter displays OPEN, GOOD, and SHORTED.
- The TEST CONTACT button advances the signal system to CONTACT when pressed if the signal amplifier is operational.
- The RESET READY button resets the signal system to READY.
- The blue, green, and orange lights display the current status of the air refueling signal system. The blue READY light indicates the system is ready for contact with a receiver. The green CONTACT light indicates that the boom is in contact with a receiver and that fuel transfer can occur. The orange DISCONNECT light indicates that a disconnect signal has been received.
- The TLSCP AT DISCONNECT (telescope at disconnect) switch selects if the boom will automatically retract when a disconnect signal is received. It has two positions AUTO, and MANUAL.
- The PILOT DIRECTOR LIGHTS are controlled by four rheostats for the background elevation & letters and telescope and for the position elevation and telescope pilot director lights.
- The NACELLE ILLUMINATION rheostats control the brightness of the engine illumination lights.
- The A/R FlOODLIGHT rheostat controls the brightness of the tail mounted air refueling floodlight.
- The BOOM NOZZLE rheostat controls the brightness of the boom mounted nozzle light that shines light on the boom nozzle.
- The UNDER BODY rheostat controls the brightness of lights mounted on the inboard side of the inboard engine struts that illuminate the under body of the aircraft to help with night air refueling.
- The UNDER WING rheostat controls the brightness of lights mounted on the underside of the aft fuselage that illuminage the underside of the wings.
- The BOOM MARKER controls turn on ultraviolet fluorescent tube lights mounted in the boom that cause fluorescent markings on the boom to glow for night air refueling. The ON/OFF switch controls power to the lights and the START positions of the start switch each turn on one of the two fluorescent lights. The neon lights indicate the status of the marker lights.
- The DIRECTOR LIGHTS GROUND TEST switch is used to turn on all pilot director lights at once for maintenance testing.
Here are a bunch of pictures of aerial refueling with the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird and A-12 Oxcart. Feel free to leave comments below about your experiences and as always, please email me your pictures at the email address listed to the right.
Boom Memorial Names
|7-Jul-51||TSGT HENRY H. HILL|
|7-Jul-51||1LT JACK W. KERN|
|7-Jul-51||CPL REGINALD F. RUSSELL|
|7-Jul-51||SSGT SCOTT L. WALLACE|
|10-Jul-53||SGT WALTER F. OLSEN|
|26-Dec-56||TSGT THURMAN RANIER|
|10-Jan-57||TSGT EDWARD C. CLEMONS|
|10-Jan-57||SSGT MICHAEL B. MCINTOSH|
|2-Feb-57||MSGT LAWRENCE M. GRIGORY|
|2-Feb-57||A2C ARTHUR B. KOSIER|
|2-Feb-57||A3C FRANKLIN D. SCHWEIGERT|
|13-Mar-57||A2C ROBERT E. CRAIG|
|13-Mar-57||A2C BILLY B. ROSE|
|8-May-57||SSGT THOMAS E. O’CONNOR|
|8-May-57||A3C DONALD E. COSPER|
|13-Aug-58||A2C FRANCIS C. HERMANCE, JR.|
|13-Aug-58||SSGT NORBERT T. KNULTY|
|22-Jan-59||A2C IGNACIO W. SANCHEZ|
|22-Jan-59||TSGT WAYNE M. SOUDER|
|4-Aug-59||A2C THOMAS M. PAYTON|
|18-Oct-60||SSGT HARDIN A. BAILEY|
|18-Oct-60||A2C THOMAS J. LANE|
|18-Oct-60||A3C MICHAEL W. MILLER|
|5-Mar-61||SSGT HAROLD D. MEEUSEN|
|5-Mar-61||A2C CLIFTON C. TABOR|
|8-Jan-62||A2C PAUL M. CLAWSON|
|8-Jan-62||A2C CARLTON A. LINK|
|8-Jan-62||SSGT BILLIE D. MOORE|
|9-Feb-62||A1C GUY L. POWELL|
|9-Feb-62||A2C RALPH E. REUTZEL|
|20-Dec-62||SSGT ROBERT T. CRAIG|
|20-Dec-62||SSGT JAMES R. HAYES|
|13-Aug-64||SSGT WALTER B. HICKMAN, JR.|
|13-Aug-64||SSGT CAREY A. LIVINGSTON|
|9-Nov-51||SGT JAMES A. MAINS|
|27-Jun-54||A1C DAVID ARAMBULA|
|27-Jun-54||SSGT ROBERT O. GONZALES|
|27-Jun-54||SSGT VINCENT PROVENZANO|
|23-Feb-55||SSGT ROBERT E. ROSENCRANCE|
|23-Feb-55||A2C CHARLES J. SITFA|
|4-May-55||A1C MARVIN R. DEVRIES|
|4-May-55||A1C JOSEPH L. PRIDGEN|
|13-Jul-55||SSGT GEORGE R. MIGNOSA|
|13-Jul-55||SSGT MARVIN F. RUSK|
|25-Apr-56||SSGT DONALD S. DELPRIORE|
|25-Apr-56||A2C JURI E. JOONAS|
|25-Apr-56||SSGT KENNETH E. VANPATTON|
|26-Jun-56||TSGT BARDEL A. CRUM|
|26-Jun-56||SSGT ROBERT L. WALLACE|
|6-Jul-56||A2C WILLIAM L. FALCONER|
|22-Jan-57||SSGT JOEL V. BLACKWELL|
|22-Jan-57||SSGT RAYMOND E. NOAH|
|18-Jul-57||SSGT JACKIE J. JAMERSON|
|29-Oct-57||TSGT RONALD E. RUBLE|
|12-Nov-58||MSGT CURTIS W. KING|
|12-Nov-58||A2C JOHN M. SCSERBAK|
|22-Jul-59||TSGT JAKE SCHMIDT|
|30-Mar-60||SSGT SHIRLEY D. RENNER|
|27-Jun-60||TSGT ROBERT P. COSTELLO|
|28-Feb-61||SSGT ERNEST J. LEMOINE|
|5-Nov-64||SSGT GERALD W. SHULTZ|
|19-Dec-64||TSGT JAMES R. BILL|
|27-Jun-58||MSGT DONALD H. GABBARD|
|25-Nov-58||TSGT RONALD L. CHAMPION|
|31-Mar-59||TSGT HERMAN A. CLARK|
|15-Oct-59||SSGT PAUL R. THOMASSON|
|3-Feb-60||SSGT GEORGE W. SHORT|
|9-May-62||SSGT WALLACE R. ADAMS|
|10-Sep-62||TSGT JOHN L. DUNCAN|
|10-Sep-62||TSGT KENNETH A. QUINN|
|27-Feb-63||TSGT DANIEL C. CAMERON|
|21-Jun-63||MSGT DANIEL F. DONAHUE|
|28-Aug-63||MSGT CARL H. BURRIS|
|28-Aug-63||TSGT RAY L. FISH|
|8-Jul-64||SSGT ROBERT L. GRAVES|
|4-Jan-65||SSGT JIMMY TARDIE|
|16-Jan-65||SSGT REGINALD R. WENT|
|26-Feb-65||MSGT CAREY W. ADDISON JR.|
|3-Jun-65||TSGT LESTER M. ALLSOP|
|17-Jan-66||MSGT LLOYD POTOLICCHIO|
|17-May-66||TSGT HARRY L. ALEXANDER|
|19-May-66||SSGT CHARLES E. STUART|
|19-Jan-67||MSGT ORVILLE MONTGOMERY|
|17-Jan-68||TSGT CHARLES C. CHAPLIN|
|30-Jul-68||SGT CHARLES A. OLVIS JR.|
|30-Jul-68||SSGT HURSCHEL D. PRIDDY|
|2-Oct-68||TSGT EARL B. ESTEP JR.|
|22-Oct-68||SMSGT HOWARD B. BENGE|
|19-Dec-69||SMSGT HOWARD G. BENFORD|
|3-Jun-71||SSGT RICHARD D. ROUSHER|
|13-Jun-71||TSGT HUBERT MILES JR.|
|13-Mar-72||SGT BRUCE J. KLAVERKAMP|
|25-Mar-75||SMSGT JACKIE V. EGBERT|
|7-Dec-75||SGT DAVID M. WANDEL|
|6-Feb-76||SSGT LLOYD D. BAKER|
|26-Sep-76||TSGT GARY L. CARLSON|
|19-Sep-79||SMSGT ALBERT L. EVANS|
|13-Mar-82||TSGT DONALD J. PLOUGH|
|19-Mar-82||MSGT RICHARD A. CROME|
|27-Aug-85||TSGT CLAUDE F. ARDEN|
|27-Aug-85||SSGT DESIREE LOY|
|17-Jun-86||SSGT QUINN L. DEWITT|
|13-Mar-87||SSGT RODNEY S. ERKS|
|13-Mar-87||SMSGT PAUL W. HAMILTON|
|11-Oct-88||A1C ROBERT L. PARHAM|
|20-Nov-88||MSGT JAMES L. BORLAND|
|31-Jan-89||CAPT ROBERT LEWELLYN|
|31-Jan-89||SSGT DAVID VICKERS|
|20-Sep-89||MSGT CHERYL HELGERMAN|
|20-Sep-89||MSGT WILLIAM J. MALICO|
|4-Oct-89||A1C JACK D. CUPP|
|19-Nov-97||MSGT ROBERT “TUG” MCGRAW|
|13-Jan-99||TSGT RICHARD D. VISINTAINER|
|ADDED SINCE BOOM MEMORIAL DEDICATION|
|27-Aug-56||A1C WILLIAM R. DENNIE Jr.|
|27-Aug-56||A3C RICHARD A. RIDLON|
|ADDED SINCE BOOM MEMORIAL DEDICATION|
|8-Apr-54||A2C FREDERICK L. MARSHALL|
|8-Apr-54||A2C WAYNE D. WHITSELL|
Here are some pictures of an F-16XL refueling from a KC-135. These pictures are quite rare and it took me a very long time to track them down.
Image Sources:http://kr.blog.yahoo.com/shinecommerce/6901.html?p=1&t=3 http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/gallery/Photo/F-16XL2/HTML/EC96-43811-2.html
Great documentary about Air Refueling that aired on the Military Channel.
Excellent documentary on the KC-135 Stratotanker including details on the tri-level refueling that earned the 1967 Mackay Trophy. Also included is a first hand account of towing a crippled F-4 Phantom. This mission received the 1983 Mackay Trophy.
The United States Navy purchased one 880 which was modified as an in-flight tanker. Unofficially designated UC-880, it was assigned to the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, and employed in Tomahawk cruise missile testing and aircraft refueling procedures. The UC-880 was destroyed in a cargo hold explosion test at NAS Patuxent River, Maryland in 1995.
If anybody has information on these crashes, please use the comments below as a forum to add your inputs.
Below is a table that shows all destroyed -135 aircraft. The list includes KC-135, RC-135, and EC-135 aircraft. Even a brief look at this listing shows that flying the KC-135 and similar aircraft was anything but safe. Since the R model conversion the safety record has been on par with that of any modern airliner.
|Date||Tail Number||KC-135 Model||Base||Summary of Events|
|27-Jun-58||56-3599||A||Westover||Heavy weight on takeoff, crashed one mile beyond runway|
|24-Nov-58||56-3598||A||Loring||Crosswind takeoff, lost No. 4 engine, lost control|
|21-Mar-59||58-0002||A||Bergstrom||Flew through thunderstorm, experienced structural failure|
|22-Jun-59||57-1446||A||Walker||Main fuel tank explosion on ramp (maintenance)|
|15-Oct-59||57-1513||A||Columbus||In-flight collision with B-52|
|3-Feb-60||56-3628||A||Walker||Gusty wind during takeoff, lost control, went off runway and crashed into 57-1449 and 57-1457 on ramp and a hanger, all three burned|
|8-Mar-60||57-1466||A||Carswell||Fog, aircraft landed on nm short, hit a power line and a building|
|18-Nov-60||56-3605||A||Loring||Hard landing, broke nose gear off, caused fuel fire|
|25-Jan-62||56-3657||A||Altus||Starter explosion during engine start, caused fuel fire|
|9-May-62||56-3613||A||Loring||Heavy weight takeoff, No. 2 engine failed, crashed 2500 feet beyond end of runway|
|8-Aug-62||55-3144||A||Wright-Patterson||Landed 2700 feet short of runway|
|10-Sep-62||60-0352||A||Ellsworth||Controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) at Mt. Kit Carson near Fairchild AFB, WA|
|23-Oct-62||62-4136||B||McGuire||Landed 1000 feet short of runway in right bank at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba|
|27-Feb-63||56-3597||A||Castle||Lost No. 1 engine during takeoff at Eielson, low visibility, night time|
|21-Jun-63||57-1498||A||Westover||Controlled flight into terrain; struck 790-foot hill, 5 nm short and 1 nm left of runway|
|28-Aug-63||61-0319||A||Homestead||In-flight collision with another KC-135 (Tail No. 61-0322) over Atlantic Ocean|
|28-Aug-63||61-0322||A||Homestead||In-flight collision with another KC-135 (Tail No. 61-0319) over Atlantic Ocean|
|11-May-64||60-0332||B||Travis||Hit a tower, 3500 feet short of runway, in heavy rain|
|8-Jul-64||60-0340||A||Larson||In-flight collision with F-105 during aerial refueling|
|4-Jan-65||61-0265||A||Loring||Lost No. 3 and No. 4 engines during takeoff, crashed 12,000 feet past runway|
|16-Jan-65||57-1442||A||Clinton-Sherman||Suspected hard-over rudder at Wichita|
|26-Feb-65||63-8882||A||Dow||In-flight collision with B-47, clear weather, over North Atlantic|
|3-Jun-65||63-8042||A||Walker||Controlled flight into terrain on low approach, in blowing sand storm|
|25-Jun-65||60-0373||A||McGuire||Controlled flight into terrain, night takeoff at El Toro, hit hills four miles beyond runway|
|17-Jan-66||61-0273||A||Seymour Johnson||In-flight collision with a B-52. Famous loss of nuclear weapons of Spanish coast.|
|17-May-66||57-1424||A||Amarillo||Wind rock during landing, lost control|
|19-May-66||57-1444||A||Kadena||Crashed during takeoff, performance problem, possibly windshear|
|19-Jan-67||56-3616||A||Fairchild||Controlled flight into terrain; hit Shadow Mountain during landing to base|
|19-Apr-67||55-3140||A||Castle||Destroyed during maintenance at Wake Island, right main gear failure|
|17-Jul-67||58-1465||R (rec)||Offutt||Stalled during takeoff, high rotation, in clear weather|
|17-Jan-68||58-0026||A||March||Crashed during takeoff in poor weather at Minot|
|30-Jul-68||56-3655||A||Castle||Structural failure during Dutch roll demonstration|
|24-Sep-68||55-3133||A||Loring||Three-engine go-around, forgot speed brakes, landed short|
|2-Oct-68||55-3138||A||Robins||Takeoff aborted after nose tires blew, went off runway at U-Tapoa|
|22-Oct-68||61-0301||A||Westover||Controlled flight into terrain; contact lost near CCK Taiwan|
|13-Jan-69||59-1491||RC/S||Eielson||Landing; lost control on icy runway in snow, at night|
|25-Mar-69||56-3602||A||Loring||Takeoff; aborted after S-1 following loss of water injection, broke apart|
|5-Jun-69||62-4137||RC/E||Eielson||Unknown cause; in-flight vibration reported, lost contact|
|19-Dec-69||56-3629||A||Ellsworth||Structural failure; lost contact, CCK Taiwan|
|3-Jun-71||58-0039||Q||Torrejon||Crashed following in-flight explosion of the nr. 1 main fuel tank. Chafing of boost pump wires in conduits was determined to be as a possible ignition source.|
|31 June 1971||61-0331||B||Wright-Patterson||Cause unknown; lost over Pacific Ocean|
|13-Mar-72||58-0048||A||Carswell||landed short; steep, idle approach|
|1-Jul-72||63-8473||F||French AF||Takeoff; lost No. 3 engine initially, then No. 4 later|
|8-Mar-73||63-7989||A||Lockbourne||Collided with another KC-135 (Tail No. 63-7980) during alert exercise|
|5-Mar-74||57-1500||A||McConnell||Crashed on takeoff; applied wrong rudder|
|8-Dec-75||60-0354||A||Eielson||Extreme cold weather; gear problem, stalled|
|6-Feb-76||60-0368||A||K.I. Sawyer||Crashed during approach into Torrejon|
|26-Sep-76||61-0296||A||K.I. Sawyer||Crashed near Alpena, Michigan|
|4-Mar-77||62-3522||A||Griffiss||Engine fire during maintenance|
|29-Apr-77||58-0101||A||Castle||Hit cattle on runway during touch-and-go at Beale|
|14-Sep-77||62-3536||EC/K||Kirtland||Controlled flight into terrain; after takeoff, hit mountain|
|19-Sep-79||58-0127||A||Castle||Flight instructor simulated engine failure on runway, lost control|
|30-Jan-80||58-0007||EC/P||Langley||Burned on ramp during heating of water|
|8-Feb-80||60-0338||Q||Plattsburg||Burned on ramp; aft body fire during refueling|
|15-Mar-81||61-2664||RC/S||Eielson||Landed short at Shemya, sheared off landing gear|
|6-May-81||61-0328||EC/N||Wright-Patterson||Runaway trim, rapidly lost altitude, Maryland|
|13-Mar-82||57-1489||A||Arizona ANG||In-flight collision with light aircraft during approach|
|19-Mar-82||58-0031||A||Illinois ANG||Exploded at 13,500 feet on approach to O’Hare|
|25-Feb-85||55-3121||RC/T||Offutt||Controlled flight into terrain; struck mountain near Valdez, Alaska during approach|
|19-Mar-85||61-0316||A||Barksdale||Burned on ramp in Cairo during refueling|
|27-Aug-85||59-1443||A||Castle||Hard landing, engine fire, stalled in turn|
|17-Jun-86||63-7983||A||Grissom||Hit the runway at Howard AB Panama, became airborne again and crashed into a hill in the jungle.|
|13-FEB-87||60-0330||A||Altus||Landed on the runway at altus afb on fire, cause was an arc in the fuel vapor area due to a compromised coax from the HF radio, aircraft subsequently burned to the ground in the infield after it rolled off the runway|
|13-Mar-87||60-0361||A||Fairchild||Airshow practice, hit wake turbulence, lost control|
|11-Oct-88||60-0317||A||Wurtsmith||Crashed on landing|
|31-Jan-89||63-7990||A||K.I. Sawyer||High crosswind, performance loss, lost control|
|21-Sep-89||57-1481||E||Eielson||Burned on ramp at Eielson|
|4-Oct-89||56-3592||A||Loring||In-flight explosion (aft body tank) during approach|
|11-Jan-90||59-1494||E||Pease||Burned on ramp at Pease|
|29-May-92||62-3584||EC/C||Eielson||On landing; ran off end of runway at Pope|
|10-Dec-93||57-1470||R||Wisconsin ANG||Burned on ramp; center wing explosion|
|13-Jan-99||59-1452||E||Washington ANG||Runaway trim in flare, nose up, stalled|
|26-Sep-06||63-8886||R||Fairchild||Struck on runway by departing aircraft at Manas AB, Kyrgyzstan.|
|3-May-13||63-8877||R||McConnell||In-flight breakup over Kyrgyzstan due to malfunctioning rudder power control unit.|
Design and development
The YF-22 and YF-23 were competing in the USAF’s Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) program, conceived in the early 1980s, to provide a replacement for the F-15 Eagle. Contracts for the two most promising designs were awarded in 1986.
The YF-23 was designed to meet USAF requirements for survivability, supersonic cruise (supercruise), stealth, and ease of maintenance. Designed with all-aspect stealth as a high priority, Northrop drew on the company’s experience with the B-2 Spirit and F/A-18 Hornet. The YF-23 was an unconventional-looking aircraft with trapezoidal wings, substantial area-ruling, and a V-tail. It introduced the novel feature of rear jet nozzle troughs lined with heat ablating tiles developed by Allison, which shielded the exhaust from infrared (IR) detection from below. All the control surfaces were coupled together via the Vehicle Management System to provide “net effect” aerodynamic control. The wing flaps and ailerons deflected inversely on either side to provide yaw, while the tail provided pitch. Aerodynamic braking was achieved by deflecting the flaps and ailerons on both sides simultaneously.
Although possessing an advanced design, in order to reduce costs and development, a number of F-15 Eagle components were utilized including the standard F-15 nose wheel unit and the forward cockpit of the F-15E Strike Eagle. Two aircraft were built. YF-23 #1 (PAV-1) was fitted with Pratt & Whitney YF119 engines, while YF-23 #2 (PAV-2) was fitted with General Electric YF120 engines. The YF-23 featured fixed nozzles. The first YF-23 was rolled out on 22 June 1990, and first flew on 27 August 1990. YF-23 #2 first flew on 26 October 1990.
The black YF-23 (PAV-1) was nicknamed “Black Widow II”, after the Northrop P-61 Black Widow of World War II and had a red hourglass marking resembling the underbelly marking of the black widow spider. The black widow marking was briefly seen under PAV-1 before being removed at the insistence of Northrop management. The gray colored YF-23 (PAV-2) was nicknamed “Gray Ghost”.
Both YF-23s were furnished in the configuration specified before the requirement for thrust reversing was dropped. The weapons bay was configured for weapons launch but no missiles were fired, unlike Lockheed’s demonstration aircraft. The YF-23s flew 50 times for a total of 65.2 hours. The YF-22 achieved Mach 1.58 in supercruise. The first YF-23 with P&W engines supercruised at Mach 1.43 on 18 September 1990 and the second YF-23 with GE engines reached Mach 1.6 on 29 November 1990. The flight testing demonstrated Northrop’s predicted performance values for the YF-23.
The YF-22 won the competition in April 1991. The YF-23 design was more stealthy and faster, but the YF-22 was more agile. It has been speculated in the aviation press that the YF-22 was also seen as more adaptable to the Navy’s Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF), though as it turned out the US Navy abandoned NATF a few months later.
After losing the competition, both YF-23 prototypes were transferred from Northrop to NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, at Edwards AFB, California. The engines were removed. NASA had no plans to perform flight tests with the airframes, but a proposal was put forward to use one of the two aircraft to study strain gauge loads calibration techniques. The possible production configuration of the F-23A has never been publicly revealed.
- Northrop YF-23. (2009, May 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:11, May 28, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northrop_YF-23&oldid=289774104
In this picture a Sargent Fletcher Aerial Refueling Tank/System (ART/S) pod is attached to an F-16 VISTA.
This unique concept is the product of the vast Sargent Fletcher experience in External Fuel Tank and Probe/Drogue Aerial Refueling systems design. The Sargent Fletcher 370-Gallon wing tank is modified to accept a retractable probe that will permit a F-16 aircraft to receive fuel from a Probe/Drogue-equipped tanker. A proof of concept flight test was conducted to verify the compatibility of the design to the hoop-up loads. No fuel was transferred in this test. Instrumentation was installed to measure loads, deflection, and stiffness. The test confirmed the loads placed on the probe and the ease of hook-up including the compatibility of the system to several different tankers.
VISTA with ARTSA later test was conducted with the ART/S® installed on the specially configured F-16 Variable Stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft (VISTA). The VISTA test flights confirmed that the ART/S® was compatible with various aircraft computer programs. When a F-16, and many other aircraft in the USAF inventory, is equipped with an ART/S®, it can receive fuel, not only from the boom/receptacle tankers, but also from any tanker in the worldwide fleet.
The Lockheed Martin F-16 VISTA (“Variable stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft”) program, which ran from 1988 to 1997, began as a privately funded joint venture between General Electric and General Dynamics, to produce a Multi-Axis Thrust-Vectoring (MATV) variant of the Fighting Falcon.
The F-16 VISTA testbed aircraft incorporated a multi-axis thrust vectoring (MATV) engine nozzle that provides for more active control of the aircraft in a post-stall situation. The resulting aircraft is supermaneuverable, retaining pitch and yaw control at angles of attack beyond which the traditional control surfaces cannot change attitude.
The VISTA program was considered successful, but the thrust vector control (TVC) never made it into production fighter versions.
The program was also notable for the development of Direct Voice Input and the “Virtual HUD”, which were both eventually to be incorporated into the cockpit design for the F-35 Lightning II. The STOVL F-35 variants also incorporate MATV while hovering to provide attitude control.
340 U.S. Gallons
3 to 40 Pounds
Equipped with Fully-Retractable,
- F-16 VISTA. (2009, May 2). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:38, May 12, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=F-16_VISTA&oldid=287499801
Sargent Fletcher Aerial Refueling Tank/System Information Flyer (PDF)